About Rare Old Indian Coins List Price Republic India coins
A coin is a peace of flat metal. It is disc in shape used as a form of money. The value of the coin was determined from the intrinsic value of the metal modern coins. They are made of base metal and their value comes strictly from their status as flat money.
These coins have standard weight size and purity with an identification mark or symbol. It has a legal tender (ie) a medium of payment allowed by a law or recognized by a legal system.
Numismatics in India
Numismatics is the study of coins. This is important for studying history, especially ancient history. It confirms, modifies and amplifies history. A country's political and economic history is to a large extent framed by numismatics and historical facts are often confirmed or disproved by numismatic findings. Numismatics has revealed to us many facts relating to the administration, historical geography and religious history of ancient India. Coins of other countries found in India and our coins found elsewhere help to link events with dates in history. They are very useful in dating.
The introduction of coins is a landmark in the history of civilization. Coins served the purpose of currency. This continued even after paper money was introduced by a private bank in Sweden in the 17th century AD. In subsequent years, paper money was introduced by other countries. Coins in smaller denominations are still used as change to facilitate transactions. If they remain current, they are still valuable as historical documents. They imagine the life and story of their times before us. Coins reveal many facts about the rulers, names, dynasties, their policies and achievements that issued them. They also have aesthetic and artistic value. They reflect the craftsmanship of the artists of that day and the aesthetic taste of the people of their time.
The evolution of Coinage
Pre-historic people had to produce their necessities by the effort of their own labour. As civilisation advanced and animals were domesticated, the practice a barter came into vogue. For example, a cultivator could get from a weaver, a piece of cloth in exchange for a quantity of his own produce. But a drawback in the barter system is that it requires the coincidence of the respective needs of the parties concerned, viz. the buyer and the seller – in economics it is called double coincidence of wants.
Objects such as cowry shells used as ornaments in early human society were also used as a medium of exchange. Gradually these were replaced by metal pieces and the use of this medium of exchange eventually led to the introduction of coins.
A coin is a piece of metal having a definite shape and weight and bearing recognized symbols on its face impressed upon it by a responsible authority. They state the value on its face. Coins of the same face value are uniform, unless the designs are changed deliberately at certain periods of time.
Material used for coinage
Coins of cowrie shells and other material like leather have been issued at certain points of time. The metal value of coins of larger denominations and their intrinsic value used to be equal. Coins of the same face value usually have uniform intrinsic value, unless this is changed deliberately at certain periods of time.
The first attempt at token currency was by Sultan Muhammad Bin Tughlak who issued leather coins. This was a fiasco, since people were not ready to accept such coins. He was too far ahead of his time. When the country went through bad times the intrinsic value used to suffer.
Various metals have been used for minting in different periods. Lead was used in Roman Egypt and in Denmark as later as the 17th Century AD. In ancient India, the Andhra Satavahanas used lead for minting coins. Tin was used in Rome. Tin Half-pennies and farthing were coins current in England up to 1692 AD. Brass was used by the early Roman Emperors and nickel by the kings of Bactria (present North Afghanistan – Tajikistan) after 200 BC. In Japan, even in recent times, iron was used for minting coins. The other metals used were electrum (An alloy of gold and silver), potin (an alloy of copper, zinc, lead and silver) and bullion (gold or silver with a large amount of base metal). Gold, silver, copper and bronze are generally used by a large number of countries for minting coins. Aluminum, Nickel and Stainless Steel have been used in Free India.
Old and New Coins of Indian Republic with Detail Information
India became free and independent from the British domination in the year 1947. But it didn’t issue its coins till it declared herself as a Republic India. New Indian coins were issued first in 1950 on the Third anniversary of Independence, on 15th August. Old Indian coins followed the Indo-English coins in respect of their value, weight, metal and fabric. The designs were drastically changed to do away with the vestiges of foreign domination and to adopt in their place. Symbols of these coins represent India’s past glory and the hopes and aspirations for the future. The effigy of the British monarch was replaced by the representation of the lion capital of Ashoka’s pillar at Saranath, the symbol of non-violence and peace on the obverse of all coins.
The super inscription Government of India took the place of the name of the king. On the reverse of the coins of rupee, half rupee and quarter rupee denominations, a new motif, a pair of ears of wheat was placed on the two sides of the English numerals showing the value. The value was also shown above in Hindi and below in English and the date below the latter the rupee coins had a milled edge. The reverse of two-annas, one-annas and half-anna was adorned with the figure of a bull adapted from the base of the lion-capital on the paise coin, the figure of horse, which is another symbol on the base of the capital was placed on the reverse. The first three coins were made in pure nickel, the next three coins in cupronickel and the pice in bronze.
The metric or decimal system was introduced in various spheres of Indian life in 1957. Consequently, the value of Indian money was row reckoned in this new system. It indicates the value which was reckoned in terms of multiples of ten. But this system probably didn’t favour with the people and soon it was abandoned again in the fourteenth century in the time of the Khilji and Tughlaq sultans of Delhi, a pentanic system of coinage was introduced. It was akin to the decimal system in Mughal period, Akbar issued coins in the pentanic-cum-decimal system.
Even the English had considered introducing of decimal coinage. The mint of fort St. George had mooted the idea of minting coins. It represents the hundredth part of an anna. It became the proposal for the abolition of the Madras mint and the idea didn’t materialize. The English administrators of India had planned to issue dollars on the American pattern in 1941. All things were finalized and mints were ready with the dies to strike them. But Mahatma Gandhi vehemently opposed the proposal. His condemnation of the proposal left no way out to the Government. But hey shelve the idea silently after independence, our leaders and administrators began to think and see everything in terms of internationalism. They found fault with the quaternary system of our money. It had prevailed more than two thousand years and served the purpose well. They introduced the metric system. It had originated in France and had been gradually adopted by most of the countries of the world.
Republic Indian rupee Coins, retained its original value but instead of being divided into 64 pice as hitherto, it was divided into 100 units called paisa. Later it became the primary unit of Indian currency. The old Indian coins and new Indian coins would remain in circulation, the new coin paisa would be called Naya Paisa to distinguish it from the old pice. This system came into effect on 1 April 1957 and continued tile 1st June 1964. The words naya and naye in relation to paisa and paise were dropped. The equivalents of half rupee and quarter rupee were retained in their original round shape and in pure nickel with the new designations 50 paise and 25 paise coins of new denominations of 10, 5 and 2 paise were introduced in cupro-nickel and one paisa in bronze. The earlier designs of all the denominations were slightly changed. The word India in English and Bharat in Hindi appeared on the right and left of the Ashoka pillar capital replacing Government of India. The reverse design for the Rupee coin remained almost the same with the modification that now only rupaya instead of Ek rupaya was used in Hindi. The ears of wheat were replaced by the ears of corn. The reverse of other coins were also completely changed. The value in English numerals was placed in the centre in bold letters and the denominations were mentioned in two forms now. The fractional relationship of the coin to the Rupee was indicated on the top. The words naye paise were placed below the numeral and below it was the date.
A new coin Aluminum magnesium alloy 3.5% of magnesium and the remainder aluminum of the three paise was introduced in July 1964. It’s shape was hexagonal. Another coin of twenty paise was introduced in aluminum bronze in the year 1968 of April. It was made up of 92% if copper, 2% of nickel and 6% of aluminum the coin of 25paise was suspended. In January 1972, the 20 paise coin was dropped and the minting of 25 paise coin was resumed. But this time they were issued in cupro-nickel (75% copper and 25% nickel) in place of pure nickel. These Republic Indian coins were now in the denominations of 50 paise, 25 paise, 10 paise, 3 paise, 2 paise and 1 paise. But later the coins of the last four denominations were gradually dropped as they lost their monetary utility. Due to the sudden increase in the princes of copper and nickel to eliminate the risk of diversion of the coins through melting and otherwise an account of their metallic value tending to increase beyond their face value changes in the metal and alloy composition were made from time to time after 1962. In that year the bronze 1 paise was replaced by nickel brass (copper 79%, Zinc 20% nickel 1%) Aluminium – Magnesium alloy was used for this coin in October 1965. Its shape was changed from round to square with rounded corners. This new alloy was for 2-paise coins from July 1965 and for 5 paise coins from January 1967. In April 1968. The Introduction of the 20 paise coins in Aluminium bronze, the 10 paise coins also were made in the same alloy. The golden yellow colour of these coins led to the erroneous belief amongst people that they contained gold and it resulted in their large scale hoarding and melting for trinkets etc. In October 1971 10 paise coins were made in magnesium.
Aluminum alloy and in an entirely new shape and size cupro-nickel was introduced for the 50-paise coin and its milled edge was changed into security edge in January 1972. A slight change was made in the reverse design. The fractional relationship of the coins with Rupee was dropped from this and all other coins. From then onwards the denominations are mentioned only in paise on Nagari and English. This change in 3 and 5 paise coins were made in March 1972. From that nickel is used only for Rupee and Cupro Nickel for 50 paise coins. The other coins are made of aluminum magnesium alloy. The weight of the coin was reduced in the year 1985 to save metal. A New coin of 2 rupees was introduced in 1986. It was similar to the 1 rupee coin that it could be easily mistaken as the 1 rupee coin so it was withdrawn. A new coin was introduced with a modified pattern. A coin of 5 rupees has also been introduced.
Development oriented coins were issued till 1980 bearing a slogan. After that slogans were dropped. The areas of development began to be emphasized. They are similar to the above mentioned coins in their metal content with the motifs on them relation to the subject in focus.
Now we have come to the end of the story of the history of coins in India. It remains to be said that coins were being minted in India itself at the Government Mints at Alipur, Bombay and Hyderabad. It they failed to meet the needs of country. Coins began to be imported from Birmingham (England) and Korea. The coins imported from Birmingham bear a dot below the first figure and those imported from Korea have H below the last figure of the date. Coins minted at Bombay have a dot below the date in the center. Hyderabad mint have a star like mark at the same place coins produced at Calcutta have no distinguish mark. The Bombay mint exclusively issues proof sets of current coins and all commemorative issues for coin collectors.
Commemorative Coins of India with Details
In 1964, a new chapter was opened in the history of Indian coins. The Bombay mint undertook to issue commemorative coins of India. The initiative was taken by issuing Commemorative coins in India of the value of Rupee and 50 paise on 14 November 1964. In the memory of the Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. Who was he first Prime Minister of India. The coins were made in pure nickel and they are in the same shape, size and weight as the current coins of India the same denominations. They bore the bare head of Nehru to the left and the name Jawaharlal Nehru above and 1889-1964 below. The Ashoka Pillar capital Emblem is on the reverse top of the coin. We can see the value in numerals below the coin. The capital was flanked by the word Bharat in Hindi on the left and India in English on the right and left of the numeral in the two languages. The 50 paise coins were of two types one had the name of Nehru in English and the other in Hindi on the obverse.
The second series of four coin in India the denominations of 10 rupees, 1 rupees, 50 paise and 20 paise were issued on 2nd October 1969. Who was the father of our nation? In order to commemorate the birth centenary of Mahatma Gandhi. The ten rupee coin had an alloy of 80% silver and 20% copper. It weight is about 15 grams and 34mm in size. The other coins were of the same size, weight and metal as the coins then current of the same value. They had on obverse of the portrait head of Mahatma Gandhi with his name in Hindi and English around 1869-1948 in exergue. The reverse was very much similar to the Nehru coins. Save that the emblem was placed in the centre instead of the top.
A third series of four coins in India the denomination of rupees 100, 20, 5, and 50-paise. These coins were issued in 1985 on the first anniversary of the death of Indira Gandhi. They have her portrait on the obverse the reverse is very much similar to the above coins and they are made of similar alloy.
These commemoratives are related to personalities. Coins were also issued to commemorate events from time to time. First such coins of ten rupees and twenty paise were issued on 16th October 1970 to commemorate the silver jubilee of the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations Organisation. Both coins were made up of same alloy, size, shape and weight as the Gandhi commemorative coins of the respective values on the obverse is shown a shining sun and the top flanked by the ears of grains on either side. In the centre is a full blown lotus in a pond we can see the date below the con Food for all in English and Sabke liye anna in Hindi is written below the year. The reverse is the same as the Gandhi coins in design but with different execution.
Two cons of the denominations of Indian Rupees coin, 10-rupees and 50 paise were issued on 15th August 1972 on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of India’s Independence. The 10 rupee coins is in quaternary alloy. It is made up of silver 50%, copper 40%, nickel 5% and Zinc 5%. It weight is about 22.5 grams. The 50-paise coin is in cupro-nickel. It has same shape, size and weight as the coin the current of the same value. A male and a female marching is in the obverse of the coin. The male holds the National flag. The Sansad Bhawan is shown in the back ground on the top is a super inscription in Hindi which means, 25the anniversary of Independence and the date 1947-1972 in the lower left side. The reverse is similar to Nehru coins in design but different in execution.
On the occasion of the International children’s year, a coin of 100 rupees was issued in 1980 depicts a music and dance scene. The Asian Games held at Delhi in 1982 at that time a set of five coins of 100, 10, 2 rupees and 25 and 10 paise were issued. We can see the historic observatory Jantar Mantar at Delhi. A set of three coin of 100 and 10 rupees and 50 paise were issued to commemorate the Golden jubilee of the Reverse Bank of India.
A set of three coins of 100, 5-rupees and one rupee were issued on the birth centenary year of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru in 1989 with his portrait. Development oriented coins are regularly issued annually to highlight the areas of development in the country since 1973. The coin were issued first in this series were in the denominations of 20 and 10 rupees and 50 paise. The first two coins have the same alloy. It was used for the ten rupee coins described above the 10-rupee has also the same weight, while the 20-rupee coin was introduced for the first time weighed about 30 grams. The 50 paise coins were similar in shape, size, weight and metal as the current coins of the same denomination. These coins bear on one side a vertical tablet in the centre, on which is super imposed in Hindi Adhik anna Upajao and it is equivalent to grow more food in English. The tablet is enriched by two ears of grains and the year 1973 appears at the bottom. The other side bears the Ashoka pillar emblem capital and the denomination is in Hindi and English.
The second ‘Development oriented’ set of three coins is on the denominations of 50 and 10 rupees and 10 paise were issued on 15th August 1974. These coins bear triangle symbolizing the family planning programme and have the slogan, ‘planned families: Food for all in English and its translation Niyojit Parivar : Sabke Liye anna. The 50 rupee coin has the quaternary alloy Silver 50% copper 40% & nickel 5%. It’s weight is about 35 grams. The ten rupee has 75% copper and 25% nickel and weight 25 grams. The 10 paise coins is of the same shape, size and weight. The metal is also the current of coins in the same denomination.
Stainless Steel Coins in India
The coinage Policy committee constituted by the Government of India recommended the introduction of stainless steel coins. The Government after examining the Committee’s recommendations took a decision to introduce stainless steel coins in the denominations of 10 paise, 25 paise and 50 paise. Since all coins are almost out of circulation.
When the production of Ferritic stainless steel strips was fully indigenized by the Steel Authority of India, it resulted in reducing the cost of production of coins considerably when compared to cupronickel coins. The Noida mint became the first in minting of stainless steel coins in the country.
Old Coin Collection in India (Hobby of collecting coins)
Coin collection means collecting coins of various kingdoms counties different types of coin. Each and every coins has a history. It tells about the culture and civilization coin collection is one of the oldest hobbies. It was practiced by the kings and wealthy people. So that coin collecting is often known us “king of hobbies” and “Hobby of kings”.
Hobby of collecting coins and studying its history and importance is called as Numismatic. A person who collects them is called as Numismatist. Purpose of collecting coins Student collects coins for fun and enjoy by exchange the coins to others and share the information about coins.
Some people collects coins as a hobby and research them. Some of them invest coin with the hope of appreciation in value. Some people collect for it intrinsic bullion value and other because of its rare value.
Indian coin Collection
Numismatics world is very vast. In ancient time coins were began in Greece and it started to achieve perfection. Importance of numismatics is to recognize the ancient history of coin. It not only covers the materials of coins made. It say the ambit source of coin materials. This includes the forms from where the coins are taken, its weight, technique of manufacture and designs.
Numismatics includes the study of organization and control of coin production and circulation by the government authority. The size and frequency of issues and metallic values and monetary are attached to the coins. The coins are the source of a study of the political, administrative, social, economic, religious and cultural life of the people denotes the history of particular period.
Indian coins were started during the period of 1st millennium of BCE which belongs to the 6th century. They were made of copper and silver in the initial stage. It is also called as Karshapanas or Pana.
The ancient Indian coins standard weights are indispensable. The basic metric system of north India was Rati seed. In south India people use their monetary system in the form of seeds of indigenous origin that is Manjadi and Kalanju or Molucca bean. The earliest Kushana coins were issued by the king of Kujula Kadphises in copper.
Royal Coin Mints in India For Coins (Coins Made in India) with Details
Coin mints usually mark the coin with some mark (such as a circle, dot, star, and diamond) or some letter or English alphabet that helps to identify the coin from which the coin was struck. Usually each mint has a distinguishing mark called mint mark.
Government of India organizes Security printing & minting Corporation of India Ltd. (SPMCIL). It is authorized by the Government agency which casts or stamps coins called as mint. The Government has authority to decide how many coin have to mint.
There are four different coin mints in India. They are Mumbai, Kolkata, Hyderabad and Noida. India inherited two British mints they are Bombay (Mumbai) and Calcutta (Kolkata) in 1947. Government of India has taken the Nizam’s mint at Hyderabad after the Federal Financial Integration of State in 1950. The Government has decided to mint the fourth because of the increasing the demand. The Noida mint came in to being. British Mint at Madras was operative along with Mumbai and Calcutta in the year of 1835 and 1837. Mint at Madras was closed down in 1867 the other two remained functional. After the independence of India, India was partitioned. Lahore Mint came under the control of Pakistan.
The British ruled over Indian Territory by separating in to three presidencies. They are Bombay, Calcutta and Madras. Each presidency has its own coins in local Indian types. The first Mint was established by British at Madras in 1640. The second mint was established at Bombay in 1671 and the third mint at Calcutta in 1759 to 60. In the years of 1824 to 1829 they established two big mints at Bombay and Calcutta by replacing the old ones.
Mumbai Mint or Bombay Mint in English
The Mumbai mint was earlier known as Bombay mint. The Mumbai Mint was established in 1830AD. The first coin was struck only in October 1830. The machinery installed here was same to that of the London mint. The building was built away from the area of a reclaimed sea at bollard pier in the Bombay harbor. The branch of the Royal mint of Landon was opened at the Bombay mint with the object of coining the British sovereign in India during the year 1918 to 1919. The Gold coinage began in August 1918 and 12,95,372 sovereigns were coined during the year. The branch of royal mint was closed in 1919.
In India Gold cannot be privately refined so gold in India is a controlled commodity. There are many private Gold refineries in the country prior to 1968. Mumbai mint is only licenced Gold refinery in the country at present. All the private Gold refineries have been closed under the gold control act of 1968.
Besides the domestic coinage the Mumbai mint undertaking minting order from foreign governments. It struck blanks and coins for many countries includes Britain, Australia, Egypt and Greece during the years of 1818 to 1947.
But recently due to increasing domestic demands of Coins, India had to place orders with certain foreign countries for blanks for domestic use.
Mumbai Mint has completed its 150 years of existence with a glorious past in 1980. It was one of the oldest mints of India. This mint was controlled by his Excellency the Governor of Bombay presidency first then it was transferred to the Government of India. The first mint at Mumbai was set up by Governor Aungier for the coinage of rupees, paise. The Mumbai Mint rupee was first coined in the year 1672. These coins were minted in the Mumbai castle, now INS Angre near Townhall. A water tank was located where now stands the multi storied building of the Reserve Bank of India. Mumbai Mint was constructed between the year of 1824 and 1830 by capt. John Hawkins FRS of Bombay Engineer Mr. James Farish was appointed as the master of mint from January 1830. For many years, 1,50,000 coins were produced daily on three steam engines in their mint.
Mr. Col Ballard became the Master of Mumbai Mint in the year 1863. He was the most famous British Master of the Mint he reclaimed the land from the sea which is known as Ballard Estate Due to his memory the name was given to this estate. The Production of commemorative coins were started in the year 1964. In 1830 the first coin was minted. The first commemorative coin was minted in the memory of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru.
The mint at Mumbai is the principal mint of India to strike commemorative coins. Proof coins are specially struck with great care. Of the four Indian Mints, Mumbai specialises in these coins. The orders for proof coins and uncirculated coins (especially polished and high quality coins for numismatists) are executed by the Mumbai mint only.
Do you know that Mumbai mint is the only mint that manufactures and supplies these weights to the whole country? Similarly, the measuring rot that you see at cloth shops also comes from the Mumbai mint only.
There is an important medal section in the Mumbai mint which undertakes the production of medals for the Ministry of Defence, which means the medals which defence officers wear on their chest come from the Mumbai mint. Asia Games were held in the year of 1982 in India. Gold, Silver and Bronze medal were Struck in this mint by striking the commemorative coins for the event. The average daily production of the mint is 30 lakh pieces of coin. The Reserve bank India places an annual Indent for minting coins with each mint. The Mumbai coin had a dot below the date line but now there is Diamond as the mint mart.
Kolkata Mint of India (Calcutta Mint or Alipore Mint)
Kolkata Mint, earlier known as Calcutta mint. It is the second important mint of India. The first Calcutta Mint was established in 1759 - 60. Calcutta Mint was producing coins with mint name Murshidabad at that time. The modern machinery was brought from England in 1790. It was originally built at Strand Road in 1829. Later, it was shifted to its present location at Alipore in 1952.
In addition to the domestic coinage, the mint had undertaken coinage orders from Nepal, Bhutan and the erstwhile state of Sikkim. There is a well-established Medal Section that strikes medals for film awards, civilian, military gallantry awards instituted by the Government of India, like the Bharat Ratna, Param Vir Chakra etc. The mint also strikes commemorative coins.
The second Calcutta Mint was established at the site of Gillet ship building establishment which was taken over by the stamp and stationary committee in 1833. All the coins issued from this mint are in the name of Murshidabad Mint and all bearing same year AH 1204.
The foundation of 3rd Calcutta Mint was laid on the strand Road on March 1824. It was opened for production from 1st August 1829. All the coins issued from this mint are also in the name of Murshidabad Mint. This mint was named as “silver mint”. At the starting time the coinage production capacity was varying between 3 lakhs and 6 lakhs pieces per day. In 1860 annexe known as copper Mint was built to the north of the Silver mint intended for copper coinage. Both silver Mint and copper Mint used to function side by side and production were Bronze, Silver and Gold coins.
Silver Mint and copper mint were well equipped by the coining presses supplied by Boulton and Watt of Soha, Birmingham, England apart from minting of coins another important function of the Kolkata mint was the manufacturing of Medals and decorations during British regime, which is still continuing In addition to home consumption of coinage, Calcutta mint produced coins for countries and estates within and outside India. In 1930 it decided to build a new Mint at Alipore and the foundation work had been completed by early 1942. The construction was interrupted due to 2nd world war. Free India was a child of 5 years. Alipore mint was opened by the honorable finance minister of Government of India Shree C.D. Deshmukh on the 19th March 1952.
This mint was the first to have successfully processed nickel for coinage. The present daily average output of the coins of this mint is approximately 30 lakh pieces. No mint mark is struck on the coins minted at the Kolkata mint, though during the pre-independence years the coins had the alphabetical letter ‘C’ below date line as its mint mark. The Kolkata mint also has the gold assaying facility similar to the Bombay mint.
Hyderabad Mint of India
Federal financial Integration was consequent in April 1950. Nizam’s Mint at Hyderabad was taken over by the Government of India. The history of the Nizam’s mint can be traced back to 1803. The official mint was established under Nawab Skinder Jah, the third Nizam. Later on the Hyderabad mint was constructed on 13th July 1903 at Saifabad and the present Mint at Cherlapally was started on 20th August 1997 with modern machinery to produce 700 million pieces of coins and 950 Million pieces of blanks to meet the growing demand. Mint has crossed many milestones during its past 100 eventful years of its existence. They have earned the reputation of reliable and potential Mint in meeting the requirement and demand of Reserve Bank of India all the time.
Besides coins, the mint also manufactures badges, bank and treasury tokens, etc. for state government departments and other institutions. Now its average daily production is about 13lakh pieces besides minting coins blank. No commemorative coins are struck at this mint.
During the period 1835-1947, mints and Kolkata and Mumbai, simultaneously minted coins of similar designs. In the early period of Queen Victoria there was no mint-mark on coins. However, an asterisk is used as the mint-mark on the Hyderabad coins, below the date line.
Noida Mint of India
The new mint at Noida is the first mint to be established by the Government of India in the post-independence period. Noida mint was established in the year 1984. The project was sanctioned by the Government in January 1986 at an estimated cost of Rs 30 crores. This mint produces 2,000 million pieces of coins every year. This mint was setup to increase the production of coins at to meet the demand and supply. The setting up of the Noida mint was a project of urgency to enable the Government to exercise its sovereign function of minting, and make coins available to the citizens in sufficient number. The Noida coins have a dot as their mint mark.
The mint had gone into production with the minting of stainless steel coins for the first increased productivity by installing most modern and sophisticated high speed coining presses with mechanized feeding arrangements, well-equipped tool and die making shop. At present, Noida Mint is minting foreign coins in addition to domestic coins. The mint mainly has a die section, coining, coin counting and a workshop. The mint currently only strikes one-rupee coins in steel, though it used to mint coins of lower denominations as well. However, coin blanks are procured from the outside sources. The mint does not have any gold assaying facility either.
Latest technology and methods are adopted at Noida Mint. This new coining press printed at a speed of 600 to 650 coins per minute, while the previous generation of machines printed only 300 to 350 coins per minute.
New coins Launched in India or Minting of Modern coins in India
The story of Coins minting is equally interesting. Prior to the invention of steam-powered coinage press, until early 1800s, most coin were either hand stamped with a hammer of an anvil or produced in screw type press.
Towards the end of the fifteenth century, Europe and the rest of the world saw advances such as the introduction of machinery to produce coins. The printing press has been in use since the 1450s and its founder, Johann Gutenberg (the famous printer) worked in a mint. Coinage and printing probably had something to do with it. The coin press was similar to the printing press in many respects, but with many variations in design. The advantage of the coin press was that the coins produced by it were very consistent in quality, although the process was initially a bit slow. In modern coin operations, the alloy is first rolled into strips called fillets of the exact thickness of coins; then blank coins (planchets) are punched out of these strips. These blanks are sorted and the good ones are polished, washed and dried. After that, these are ready for printing. When printing, planchets are first run through a roller that places a raised edge or rim on the blanks. They are then weighed, and those that are either underweight or over weight are placed in a ring or roller that holds the coins and at the same time ‘reeds’ the edge with ribs. Finally, the dies stamp the designs on both the head (obverse) and tail (reverse) sides of the coins. The tail side generally bears the value and the date line.
Finished coins are inspected and defects are removed. The good ones are weighed and counted. Thereafter, these are bagged and sent to the Reserve Bank of India for further distribution to other banks for distribution to the general public.
Ancient Coins of India (Historical coins of India)
Punch Marked Coins in India
Punch Marked coins are the earliest coins of India. We have got information about the Purana Coins in the literature but we have not seen. Punch Markeed coins are in the metal of Gold, Silver and Copper.
Silver and Copper coins have been seen unearthed but we can see the Gold coins in literature.
Punch Marked coins have no date, year and name of the king is not mentioned only symbols are seen. The character of these symbols are in astronomical, religious and mythological.
The marks of the coins are sun, the elephant, cow, chariot, horse, bull, jackal, tree, tiger or lion and Dharmachakra. These were circulated in north and south India in the same time.
These type were minted during the centuries of 6thBC to 5thBC. During the 7th century BC merchants of Asia Minar of Lydia cites spent their own gold and silver plates with their symbols. These are the first punch marked coin. Some peoples said that these were released by china.
Old Sangam Age Coins
Sangam Age coins was one of the oldest coins in India. Sangam Age was started during the 3rd century BC. We had not identified these coins up to 19th century. Sir Walter Elyet had released a book of South Indian coins in 1886. We can got the information of Sangam Age coins through this book. After him R. Krishnamoorthy had found the letters of Perumvaluthi in the coins. He was the Editor of Dhinamalar Newspaper. Like this he identified lot. Arumugam Seetharaman of Tanjore also found lot of sangam age coins.
Chera, Chola and Pandya coins are implementing their symbols. They are in the shapes of square, rectangle and circle. These coins are in the metals of copper, silver and lead. Its weight is about 0.500grams - 12.5grams.
Pallava dynasty is one of the most important dynasty is South India. They ruled in the period of 600 CE to 900 CE. Pallava coins were mostly round and few were in square. Its weight is about 0.5 to 10 grams. The size of this coin is about 0.5cm to 2.5cm. The basic symbols of Pallava coins are bull, lion, svastika, flag, srivasta, ship, shank, chakra and crescent etc. Pallava coins are minted in copper, lead and bronze.
Kushans were one of the tribe people they over threw the Saka power in Bactria in about 100 BC. The Kushans were under the control of Kujula Kadphises in 50AD. The Kushans are divided into two heads. They are Kadphises group and Kanishka group. The Kanishka group coins have only Greek characters. They introduced the Iranian title “Shaonana Shao”, it is called as “King of Kings” instead of the Greek “Basileus Basileon”.
After the death of Ashoka, Satavahana became an independent dynasty in 232BC. Satavahana ruled this dynasty up to 227 AD. The Satavahana coins are mostly made up of lead. Silver coins are very rare to seen. They used an alloy of silver and copper, it is called as “potin”. Lot of copper coins are also available.
The one side of Satavahana coin have the figure of an elephant, horse, lion or Chaitya. It has Ujjain symbol ie. Cross with four circles at the end of the two crossing lines on the other side of the coin.
Gupta Kings period is about 300AD to 550 AD. The Gupta coins are mostly made up of Gold. They issued silver and copper coins also. After the Chandragupta II period the silver coins were issued. Gupta Gold coin have many types and varieties. We can see king standing and making oblations before and alter, playing the veena, performing asvamedha sacrifice, riding a horse, riding an elephant, slaying a lion or a tiger or a rhinoceros with a sword or bow, or sitting on a couch on one side. We can see the goddess Lakshmi seated on a throne or a lotus seat, or the figure of the queen herself on the other side.They have Sanskrit inscriptions. It appears on Indian coins for the first time.
The Western Satraps had the dominion in Western India. It comprising Malwa, Gujarat and Kathiawar. The western Satraps coins have great historical importance. The period about 78AD. The coins of the Western Satraps have the head of the king on one side. They carry the device of the Buddhist Chaitya or Stupa on the other side.
The Varadhanas of Taneshwar and Kanauj were reason for turning out the Hun invaders from India. Harsha was their most powerful kings. Their empire is comprised almost the whole of Northern India.
The one side of Vardhana silver coin have the head of the king and on the other side we can see the figure of a peacock. Harshavardhana coins are reckoned in a new era. They belong to the period of 606 AD. This is the year of his coronation.
Rajput dynasties coins were mostly made up of gold. Copper or bullion are also available. Silver coins are very rare. Rajput coinage are of two types. One type shows the name of the king in Sanskrit on one side. We can found a goddess on the other side.
Numismatic Exhibitions Dates in India
2-4 September, 2022 Bhopal. M. P.
Awadh Mudra Utsav -2022 : 9, 10, 11th Sep 2022, Venue: Hotel The Regnant, A-35, Aliganj Main Road, Officers Colony, Nirala Nagar, Lucknow - 226020 Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh Time: 10.00 am to 6.00 pm Entry Free
MCS - 2022 Mumbai Coin Society Exhibition : 16, 17, 18 September 2022 Venue: World Trade Center, Cuff Parade, Mumbai, Maharashtra
Pollachi Coin Expo 2022 : September 23, 24, 25 Venue: Mayura Mahal New Scheme Road, Pollachi, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu India Entry Free.
Coin Expo 2022 : September 30, October 1 and 2 2022 At Townhall, Ernakulam, Kerala, India, Time: 10am to 7pm Entry Free
Travancore Expo : October 14,15 and 16 2022 Venue: Bhagyamala Auditorium Chandrasekharan Nair Stadium Palayam, thiruananthapuram Time: 10 am to 8pm Entry Free
Hypex - Diamond : 19th, 20th, 21st(Saturday, Sunday and Monday) November, 2022 Venue: Pragati Printers Lane, Red Hills, Hyderabad - 500 004 Timings: Saturday and Sunday: 10.00 am to 7.00pm Monday: 10.00am to 6.00pm Entry Free
Rare Fair 2023 : 6th, 7th and 8th January 2023, Venue: Manohar Garden & Banquets, Opp Indira Nagar Tunnel, Goind Nagar Corner, Mumbai - Agra Highway Nashik. Time: 10.00 am to 8.00 pm Entry Free
Indian Coins List Or Selling price of Old India coins
Selling price of Rare old Indian coins List links are given below.
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